The following is from Dr. Werner Gitt’s book, In the Beginning was Information. You can download the PDF file here.
The Author, Prof. Dr-Ing. Werner Gitt was born in Raineck/East Prussia in 1937. In 1963 he enrolled at the Technical University of Hanover (Technische Hochschule Hannover) and in 1968 he completed his studies as Diplom Ingenieur. Thereafter he worked as an assistant at the Institute of Control Engineering at the Technical University of Aachen (Technische Hochschule Aachen). Following two years of research work, he received his doctorate summa cum laude, together with the prestigious Borchers Medal, from the Technical University of Aachen, Germany, in 1970. He is now Director and Professor at the German Federal Institute of Physics and Technology (Physikalisch- Technische Bundesanstalt Braunschweig). He has written numerous scientific papers in the field of information science, numerical mathematics, and control engineering, as well as several popular books, some of which have been translated into Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, English, Finnish, French, Hungarian, Italian, Kirghizian, Polish, Rumanian and Russian. Since 1984 he has been a regular guest lecturer at the State Independent Theological University of Basle, Switzerland, on the subject of ‘The Bible and Science’. He has held lectures on related topics at numerous universities at home and abroad, as well as having spoken on the topic ‘Faith and Science’ in a number of different countries (e. g. Australia, Austria, Belgium, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Lithuania, Namibia, Norway, Rumania, Russia, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland).
Below is a list of theorems about information that Dr. Gitt listed in his book. I didn’t include all the theorems because some can only be understood in the context it was given. Hence I purposely did not include the theorem numbers.
- The fundamental quantity information is a nonmaterial (mental) entity. It is not a property of matter, so that purely material processes are fundamentally precluded as sources of information.
- Information only arises through an intentional, volitional act.
- Information comprises the nonmaterial foundation for all technological systems and for all works of art.
- A code is an essential requirement for establishing information. (Examples of a code: language, letters, ideographs such as Chinese, Morse code, hieroglyphics, international flag codes, musical notes, various data processing codes, genetic codes)
- The allocation of meanings to the set of available symbols is a mental process depending on convention.
- If a code has been defined by a deliberate convention, it must be strictly adhered to afterwards.
- If the information is to be understood, the particular code must be known to both the sender and the recipient.
- A code system is always the result of a mental process (it requires an intelligent origin or inventor).
- Any given piece of information can be represented by any selected code.
- Any piece of information has been transmitted by somebody and is meant for somebody. A sender and a recipient are always involved whenever and wherever information is concerned.
- Any entity, to be accepted as information, must entail semantics (the branch of linguistics and logic concerned with meaning); it must be meaningful.
- When its progress along the chain of transmission events is traced backwards, every piece of information leads to a mental source, the mind of the sender.
- Information always entails a pragmatic aspect. (Requesting a workable action.)
- Information is able to cause the recipient to take some action (stimulate, initialise, or implement).
- Every piece of information is intentional (the teleological aspect) (Teleology: the philosophical doctrine that final causes, design, and purpose exist in nature.)
- The teleological aspect of information is the most important level, since it comprises the intentions of the sender.
- There is no known natural law through which matter can give rise to information, neither is any physical process or material phenomenon known that can do this.